During industrial processes, a commercial dust collection system ensures that potentially harmful gases, particulate matter, contaminants, and other airborne pollutants are not released into the workplace or environment during production and manufacturing. Dust collection systems are vital for numerous industries and industrial processes in maintaining, if not improving, a facility’s air quality. More than protecting the workplace and environment, dust collection systems also protect equipment and machinery from the damaging effects of dust and debris accumulation on parts and components, reducing maintenance costs.
Types of Dust Collection Systems
As pollutants differ by industry, so do dust collection system applications. Though the overall objective for all dust collection systems is the same—to filter, separate, and capture dust, contaminants, and particulate matter and then release expunged air—each is designed to meet the industry-specific needs of a particular factory, plant, warehouse, or another industrial or commercial manufacturing facility. In other words, keep in mind, when considering the design and installation of a dust collection system for an industrial environment, a specific extraction method is required for each industry.
Companies shopping for a commercial dust collection system should become familiar with the different design variations and contact CPE Filters directly to learn more about the system best suited for their industry. Here are several collection systems and important design factors to consider as you search for the system that works for you.
A baghouse dust collector provides high-efficiency filtration for many industrial environments. Baghouse collectors are the most commonly used collection systems offering versatility and efficiency from ambient temperature to high-temperature production environments and processes. Named for the long, cylindrical tube-like fabric bags hung from metal cages that comprise the ‘baghouse,’ depending on the baghouse system design, they are capable of capturing, filtering, and removing abrasive particles, acid gases, explosive dust, contaminated mists, fumes, and fine powders from the airstream with 99.9% efficiency. The three most popular baghouse designs are the pulse jet, shaker, and reverse air systems.
Of the three systems, the pulse jet model is the most popular. Easily customized to meet the application needs of the industry, pulse jet systems are capable of withstanding a wide range of temperatures and pressures while providing high collection efficiency. Bag filters are cleaned via rapid blasts of high-pressure compressed air directed at the bags. The ‘pulse’ of air shatters and discharges caked dust into the hopper for disposal.
The shaker baghouse system is a lower investment alternative to the pulse jet for larger airflow processes. The system works by shaking accumulated dust cake free from filter bags hung from the top of the unit and attached at the bottom of the baghouse. The dirty air enters from the bottom and is pulled up, where the dust and particulates are collected inside the tube-like bags. The multi-sectional systems can be either cleaned offline or online in sections.
As the name suggests, reverse air filter baghouse designs reverse the airflow through the filter bags utilizing an exhaust fan rotating above the bag module. Dust and particulates are collected outside the bags, where dust cakes are accumulated. Dust and other matter are released when reverse air is blown through the bag. The multi-compartment design is cost-effective and can be cleaned separately without shutting down the system.
A cyclone dust collector utilizes inertia to remove the heavy particles from the lighter air. By design, contaminated air flows into a vertical collection chamber, subjected to rapid cyclonic forces, a vortex that captures larger, fibrous, heavier, coarse particles. Inertia pushes the particles against the chamber and down to the hopper for collection. Smaller particles are lifted and carried from the chamber to the second stage system for filtering. Cyclone systems are the first stage of a multi-stage dust collection conveying system. Often used as pre-cleaners before baghouse systems, they are one of the least expensive dust collection equipment and require little maintenance.
Cartridge Dust Collectors
Another option for companies shopping for a dust collection system is a cartridge dust collector. Instead of bags, filtration occurs by utilizing a pleated cartridge filter. Pleated filters offer a larger total filtering surface area per cubic feet per minute than a baghouse filter. The advantage here is that the air-to-cloth ratio is reduced, making the dust collector’s size smaller than in other systems. Though highly efficient, cartridge dust collectors are cleaned by a pulse-jet method similar to baghouse dust collectors and are designed to function in small-space operations.
The proper hood design is essential for every dust collection system. The hood must be able to draw the dust and fumes at a velocity sufficient not to have the pollutants escape into the facility without pulling excessively to remove valuable products into the dust collector. Hoods are the initial point where dust and particulate matter are captured and removed from the work environment. Dust collection systems rely on two primary types of hoods: enclosing and capturing hoods. The former completely or partially enclose the contaminants within the hood to prevent particulates from escaping. The latter is designed to provide sufficient venting to prevent contaminants from escaping the hood.
Selecting the Right Fan
Industrial fans are another component essential for dust collection applications. For dust collection systems to function, fans either create a “forced draft” or “induced draft” by design. In short, depending on the dust collector, fans must either push air or pull it through the collection system for the system to remove and process dust and contaminants from a given industrial airstream. Airflow and blade design are important factors when designing a dust collection system, as baghouse systems and cartridge systems, for example, call for different fan types and drafts.
Duct layout is another important factor that must be considered when designing a dust collection system. For the system to function properly and handle the material applications, ducts must be airtight, withstand high air pressure, reduce static pressure loss, and maintain sufficient velocity to carry the contaminants the entire distance to the dust collector. Leaks can accumulate dust and inefficiency. In layout and design, ductwork for a dust collection system is largely composed of hard fixed ducting and flexible hose ducting, each with an assortment of fittings and pipe sizes of varying diameters.
Contact the Experts at CPE Filters, Inc.
If you are in the market for a commercial dust collection system or any other dust collector equipment or wish to learn more about industrial dust collectors and how they can help improve your facility, don’t hesitate to contact our experienced team at CPE Filters, Inc. today. We offer a range of industrial dust collection systems for production and manufacturing facilities around the globe.