Understanding the Different Types of Industrial Dust Extraction Systems

Industrial dust extraction systems are industrial-scale dust collectors used to remove and filter hazardous dust, gasses, and particulates from industrial and manufacturing facilities. They are employed to protect the workplace, both people and machinery, as well as the environment, from harmful airborne contaminants and improve air quality.

Because the pollutants generated by industry differ, so do the types of industrial dust extraction systems. Industrial applications for dust collection are specific to contaminants generated by the facility—fumes, fine particulate matter, and harmful dust. Even though extraction methods for each industry vary, the objective for each system is basically the same: to capture polluted air, remove the dust, and release sanitized air back into the environment.

Baghouse Dust Collectors

Of the different types of dust extraction systems, the baghouse dust collector system is by far the most popular. Utilizing fabric filter bags housed in large metal frame structures, baghouse systems are designed to draw in dust-filled gas streams through a duct system and then filter and trap dirty air in the filter media. Over time, the dust builds up and cakes on the filter surface, which further acts to impede the passage of harmful dust back into the workplace.

There are three common types of baghouse systems—Reverse Air, Pulse Jet, and Shaker. How the filter bags are cleaned is the primary difference between the three baghouse dust collection systems. For example, in reverse air baghouse systems, fabric filter bags are suspended from a tensioning plate at the top and attached to a plate at the bottom of the baghouse. Air and gas streams enter the baghouse through the bottom, where particulates and dust are captured as the airflow rises. Processed, clean air is released through the outlet at the top. Filter bags are cleaned by injecting air in a reversed direction. Essentially, pressure from the reverse airflow will cause the filter bags to collapse slightly, which releases dust cakes into the hopper.

Reverse Air Baghouse

Reverse air baghouse filter bags are subject to limited wear and tear, and are generally considered cost-efficient and very effective. The system is ideal for cleaning gases with typically high flow rates and high temperatures. They can also be designed to continue to partially operate as cleaning occurs. Reverse air baghouse systems are commonly found in agro-based plants such as dairy and fertilizer, as well as food and beverage, paper and pulp, petrochemicals and refineries, and textiles. The disadvantage is that the units are typically cleaned off-line so for continuous operations, multiple modules are required.

Pulse Jet Baghouse

Unlike the reverse air system, in the pulse jet baghouse system, the airstream is designed to push dust and contaminants to the outside surface of the bags. Operating on a cleaning cycle, bursts of compressed air pulse through the length of the bag causing the dust cakes to dislodge and fall into the hopper at the base. The pulse jet’s main advantage is that the system does not have to be taken offline when cleaning the filters. With the dust removal at regular intervals, the system offers more complete cleaning and reconditioning of the filter bags compared to other systems. On the downside, the necessary high pressure and expense of compressed air will add to the operational costs. Pulse jet dust collectors are generally used in food processing environments to meet general food grade and FDA requirements.

Shaker Baghouse

As the name suggests, shaker baghouse systems dispose of the dust collected by mechanically shaking dust-laden bags free of dust where it is released into a collection hopper at the base of the baghouse. The top of the baghouse is fitted with filter bags where they are hung and attached in place to a tube sheet at the bottom. Contaminated gases are carried through the airstream entering through the bottom of the system and rising through the inside of the bags, trapping contaminants. The processed airstream exits the top of the system into the workplace.

To clean the filter bags, the shaker system must first be shut off. The advantage of the shaker baghouse design is its simplicity. There are no operating costs related to compressed air as the system relies on airflow. When the bags are cleaned the airflow is shut off and the mechanical shaking mechanism dislodges the caked dust into the hopper. Shaker systems are found where dry material is stored in silos or other bulk storage containers, primarily in steel mills, foundries, power plants, mining facilities, and smelting industries.

Quality Industrial Dust Extraction Systems from CPE Filters, Inc.

Industrial dust extraction systems remove the nuisance, harmful, and hazardous dust and fumes from the air in manufacturing facilities before they are inhaled, released in the atmosphere, or settle on surfaces. CPE Filters, Inc. offers a wide range of industrial dust extraction systems to contain and collect fumes, dust, and dry particulate matter from a variety of industrial and manufacturing processes. To discuss your dust extraction needs, contact CPE Filters.